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GRUFFUDD ap CYNAN (c. 1055 - 1137), brenin Gwynedd | Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig

GRUFFUDD ap CYNAN (c. 1055 - 1137), brenin Gwynedd

Enw: Gruffudd Ap Cynan
Dyddiad geni: c. 1055
Dyddiad marw: 1137
Priod: Angharad wraig Gruffudd ap Cynan
Plentyn: Annest ferch Gruffudd
Plentyn: Susanna wraig Madog ap Maredudd
Plentyn: Rainillt ferch Gruffudd
Plentyn: Marared ferch Gruffudd
Plentyn: Gwenllian ferch Gruffudd
Plentyn: Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd ap Cynan
Plentyn: Owain ap Gruffydd ap Cynan
Plentyn: Cadwallon ap Gruffudd
Rhiant: Ragnhildr wraig Cynan
Rhiant: Cynan ab Iago
Brawd neu chwaer: Maredudd ap Cynan
Rhyw: Gwryw
Galwedigaeth: brenin Gwynedd
Maes gweithgaredd: Milwrol; Gwleidyddiaeth a Mudiadau Gwleidyddol; Teuluoedd Brenhinol a Bonheddig
Awdur: Thomas Parry

Ei dad oedd Cynan ap Iago, a oedd yn alltud yn Iwerddon, a'i fam oedd Rhagnell (Ragnhildr), o deulu brenhinol Sgandinafiaid Dulyn. Er 1039, pan laddwyd Iago trwy frad ei wŷr ei hun, bu Gwynedd o dan reolaeth treiswyr nad oeddynt o linach frenhinol y wlad. Un o'r rheini oedd Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, a laddwyd yn 1075, ac a ddilynwyd ar yr orsedd gan ei gefnder, Trahaearn ap Caradog, brenin Arwystli. Yn y flwyddyn honno daeth Gruffudd drosodd o Iwerddon i geisio ennill ei dreftadaeth, a glaniodd yn Abermenai. Gyda help Robert o Ruddlan gorchfygwyd a lladdwyd Cynwrig, a deyrnasai yn Llŷn o dan Drahaearn. Mewn brwydr ym Meirionnydd gorchfygwyd Trahaearn yntau, a'i yrru ar ffo i'w wlad ei hun, Arwystli. Fel brenin Gwynedd y peth cyntaf a wnaeth Gruffudd oedd ymosod ar y castell Normanaidd newydd yn Rhuddlan, er gwaethaf yr help a gawsai gan Robert. Dug ymaith gryn ysbail, ond nid enillodd y castell. Oherwydd casineb at y Daniaid ym myddin Gruffudd gwrthryfelodd gwŷr Llŷn, a manteisiodd Trahaearn ar y cyfle i ymosod ar Gruffudd a'i orchfygu ym Mron-yr-erw ger Clynnog. Ffoes Gruffudd yn ôl i Iwerddon. Yn 1081 dychwelodd, a glanio ym Mhorth Clais yn Nyfed, ac ymuno â Rhys ap Tewdwr, gŵr a oedd yntau yn ceisio adennill ei diriogaeth, sef Deheubarth. Cyfarfuant â Trahaearn ym Mynydd Cam, a lladdwyd ef, ac felly daeth Gruffudd unwaith eto yn frenin Gwynedd. Ond yn fuan, trwy frad un o'i frehyrion ef ei hun, Meirion Goch, daliwyd ef gan y Normaniaid yn y Rug, ger Corwen, a'i ddwyn yn garcharor i Gaer. Tra bu ef yng ngharchar enillodd y Normaniaid lawer o dir yng Ngwynedd, a chodwyd cestyll ganddynt ym Mangor, Caernarfon, ac Aberlleiniog. Nid oes sicrwydd pa hyd y bu Gruffudd yn garcharor (dywed yr Hanes mewn un man mai 12 mlynedd, ac mewn man arall mai 16), ond yr oedd yn rhydd erbyn 1094 (ac efallai gryn dipyn cyn hynny), ac yn amlwg yn yr ymgyrch a fu drwy'r wlad yn erbyn y Normaniaid y flwyddyn honno. Ond yn 1098 daeth y Normaniaid o Gaer ac o Amwythig ar warthaf Gwynedd. Gwarchaewyd Gruffudd ym Môn, a gorfu iddo ddianc unwaith yn rhagor i Iwerddon. Dychwelodd y flwyddyn wedyn a chafodd reoli ym Môn drwy ganiatâd y Normaniaid. Rhywbryd yn ystod y blynyddoedd dilynol daeth yn arglwydd ar Wynedd uwch Conwy. Cafodd lonydd am y gweddill o'i oes i ymgadarnhau yn ei deyrnas. Y mae'n wir i'r brenin Harri I ddod â byddin fawr i Wynedd yn 1114, ond ni chollodd Gruffudd ddim tir, ac ar ôl hynny ni chymerth ef ei hun odid ddim rhan mewn brwydro. Ond helaethwyd awdurdod Gwynedd yn fawr iawn gan ei feibion, Owain a Cadwaladr, a chyn ei farw yr oedd Ceredigion, Meirionnydd, Rhos, Rhufoniog, a dyffryn Clwyd o dan reolaeth Gwynedd. Bu f., yn ddall a methiantus, yn 1137. Claddwyd ef yn eglwys gadeiriol Bangor, a chanwyd ei farwnad gan ei bencerdd, Meilyr. Bu ei wraig, Angharad ferch Owain ab Edwin, byw am 25 mlynedd ar ei ôl.

Bu traddodiad ymysg beirdd Cymru i Gruffudd ap Cynan wneud trefn a dosbarth ar gerdd dafod, a defnyddiwyd ei enw er rhoi awdurdod i'r ‘ystatud,’ neu reolau, a luniwyd ynglŷn ag eisteddfod Caerwys yn 1523. Nid oes dim i gadarnhau'r traddodiad hwn, ond y mae'n ddigon rhesymol credu iddo ddod â beirdd a cherddorion gydag ef o Iwerddon, ac fe ddichon i'r rhain ddylanwadu rywfodd ar gerdd dafod a thant yng Nghymru. Nid oes dim chwaith yn erbyn credu i Gruffudd wneud rhyw gyfnewidiadau ffurfiol ar drefniadau'r beirdd. Y mae'n sicr fod traddodiad cryf a dilys yn yr 16eg g. i'r perwyl hwnnw. Y mae'n werth sylwi fod yr Hanes yn croniclo lladd Gellan, telynor Gruffudd ym Môn yn 1094.

Gruffudd ap Cynan yw'r unig un o dywysogion y Cyfnod Canol y mae bywgraffiad iddo ar gael heddiw (gw. llyfryddiaeth isod). Canmoliaeth ddigymysg yw'r gwaith. Y mae digon o dystiolaeth yn yr iaith i brofi mai cyfieithiad o'r Lladin ydyw, ond nid yw'r gwreiddiol ar gael. Ysgrifennwyd ef rywdro at ddiwedd y 12fed g., gan ŵr eglwysig, mwy na thebyg.

Awdur

Dyddiad cyhoeddi: 1953-54

Hawlfraint Erthygl: