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HUGHES, JOHN CEIRIOG (1832 - 1887), bardd | Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig

HUGHES, JOHN CEIRIOG (1832 - 1887), bardd

Enw: John Ceiriog Hughes
Dyddiad geni: 1832
Dyddiad marw: 1887
Rhyw: Gwryw
Galwedigaeth: bardd
Maes gweithgaredd: Barddoniaeth
Awdur: David Gwenallt Jones

g. yn Pen-y-bryn, Llanarmon, 25 Medi 1832. Aeth i Fanceinion ar ddechrau 1849, a chael swydd ymhen tua thri mis fel clerc yng ngorsaf nwyddau London Road. Yr oedd ym Manceinion yn yr adeg hon Gymry fel ‘Creuddynfab,’ ‘R. J. Derfel,’ ‘Idris Fychan,’ ‘Meudwy Môn,’ ac eraill; ffurfiodd pedwar ohonynt — ‘Creuddynfab,’ ‘R. J. Derfel,’ ‘Idris Fychan,’ a ‘John Hughes’ — gwmni llenyddol bychan; gwelir dylanwad y tri ar John Hughes. Lluniasai Ceiriog gerddi cyn mynd i Fanceinion yn Baner Cymru ac Y Greal, a golygydd colofn farddol Y Greal, Robert Ellis oedd y cyntaf i'w gynorthwyo fel bardd. Cafodd wobr gysur yn eisteddfod Manceinion, 1852, am gerdd ar ‘Paul o Flaen Agrippa,’ cerdd Feiblaidd Filtynaidd, fel llawer o gerddi hanner cyntaf y ganrif. ‘Creuddynfab>,’ ‘my most intimate dear valuable old friend and Tutor in poetry if I had one’ (chwedl ef yn N.L.W. MS. 10193), a'i dysgodd i ganu yn wahanol. Dysgodd yr athro i'w ddisgybl ganu yn delynegol fel Robert Burns a Thomas Moore; canu ar destunau fel gwladgarwch, y bywyd gwledig, a serch yn syml, naturiol, a phoblogaidd.

R. J. Derfel a'i dysgodd yn y cwmni i werthfawrogi'r Gymraeg, a thraddodiadau a hanes Cymru. Ymosodai ar y cyfenwau Saesneg; gosododd ‘Derfel’ fel cyfenw ar ôl ei enw bedydd, Robert Jones Derfel; gofynnodd i John Hughes ei ddilyn, ond gosod ‘Ceiriog’ rhwng y ‘John’ a'r ‘Hughes’ a wnaeth ef — John Ceiriog Hughes.

Datgeiniad oedd ‘Idris Fychan’; bu'n casglu ceinciau a ‘hen benillion’ fel Edward Jones, ‘Ifor Ceri,’ ac eraill o'i flaen. Oddi wrtho ef y cafodd Ceiriog y chwiw casglu ceinciau, a bu yn eu casglu drwy ei oes. Casglodd hefyd hanes y ceinciau a hanes telynorion, a chasglodd hwiangerddi. Bwriadai gyhoeddi pedair cyfres o ‘Alawon Cymreig,’ ond un a gyhoeddodd, Cant o Ganeuon: Yn Cynwys, Y Gyfres Gyntaf o Eiriau ar Alawon Cymreig, ac y mae ganddo yn Y Bardd a'r Cerddor restr o 1,195 ohonynt, a daliodd fod rhwng 60 a 100 o geinciau dienw. Ni ellir deall barddoniaeth Ceiriog ar wahân i'r casglu ceinciau, oherwydd ei amcan ef fel bardd oedd llunio geiriau ar geinciau; troi'r ceinciau yn ganeuon. Ymdriniodd ef ei hun â'r grefft hon o lunio geiriau ar geinciau yn Y Bardd a'r Cerddor, ‘Awgrymiadau Ynghylch Ysgrifenu Caneuon a Geiriau i Gerddoriaeth.’ Er nad oedd Ceiriog yn deall techneg miwsig, yr oedd ganddo, yn ôl ‘Idris Fychan,’ y ddawn i ddal ‘anianawd’ yr alaw, a'r ddawn i roi ‘ysbryd’ y gainc mewn corff o eiriau. Y mae'r geiriau yn ei gerddi yn fwy na geiriau; y maent yn eiriau wedi eu priodi â nodau. Yn Songs of Wales (Brinley Richards) y gwelir cerddi Ceiriog yn eu cyfle iawn. Yn ei lythyrau fe welir iddo lunio rhai caneuon ar gais cantorion, ac adroddiadau ar gais adroddwyr, i'w canu a'u hadrodd mewn cyngherddau a chyfarfodydd adloniadol. Bardd y piano oedd Ceiriog; bardd y gyngerdd.

Yn 1865 dychwelodd Ceiriog i Gymru, i Lanidloes, yn orsaf-feistr y Cambrian Railway; yn 1870 aeth i Dywyn, ac yn 1871 penodwyd ef yn arolygydd ar y rheilffordd a oedd newydd ei hagor o Gaersws i'r ‘Van.’ Yn ymyl Trefeglwys trigai Nicholas Bennett, Glanyrafon, ac i hwn, ‘Cymydog Caredig a Chyfaill Mynwesol i John Ceiriog Hughes,’ y cyflwynodd ‘Llyfrbryf’ y casgliad olaf o gerddi Ceiriog, Yr Oriau Olaf. Bu f. John Ceiriog Hughes 23 Ebrill 1887, a chladdwyd yn Llanwnog.

Awdur

Dyddiad cyhoeddi: 1953-54

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