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Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 118
Function: loadXML

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
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Function: require_once

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Filename: controllers/Article.php

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Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 118
Function: loadXML

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Warning

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Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

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Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 129
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Line Number: 129

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 129
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

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File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 137
Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Message: Trying to get property of non-object

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

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Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 140
Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
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Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
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Function: require_once

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File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 251
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: xsltTransform

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Function: require_once

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Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: require_once

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File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
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Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: xsltTransform

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Function: require_once

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File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
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Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: transformToXml

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Function: require_once

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Line: 331
Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

LEE (LEGH), ROWLAND (bu f. 1543), esgob Coventry a Lichfield (1534-43) a llywydd cyngor gororau Cymru (1534-43) | Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig

LEE (LEGH), ROWLAND (bu f. 1543), esgob Coventry a Lichfield (1534-43) a llywydd cyngor gororau Cymru (1534-43)

Enw: Rowland Lee
Dyddiad marw: 1543
Rhyw: Gwryw
Galwedigaeth: esgob Coventry a Lichfield (1534-43) a llywydd cyngor gororau Cymru (1534-43)
Maes gweithgaredd: Crefydd; Gwasanaethau Cyhoeddus a Chymdeithasol, Gweinyddiaeth Sifil
Awdur: William Llewelyn Davies

Er nad oedd Rowland Lee yn Gymro — o ogledd Lloegr yr oedd ei dad a'i fam — rhaid ei gynnwys yma oblegid y gwaith a wnaeth pan fu'n llywydd cyngor y gororau. Ceir manylion ei yrfa yn y D.N.B. Bu'n gweithredu dan Cardinal Wolsey pan oeddid yn diddymu rhai o'r mynachlogydd, a chawsai brofiad helaeth mewn gwaith arall hefyd dros Lywodraeth Lloegr cyn cael ei ethol yn 1534 yn esgob Coventry a Lichfield (a gynhwysai hefyd y pryd hynny yr hyn a ddaeth yn esgobaeth annibynnol Caer) ac yn llywydd cyngor y goror yn Llwydlo — gan ddilyn John Voysey, esgob Exeter, yn yr ail swydd. Yr oedd pethau wedi mynd yn ddrwg yng nghyfnod Voysey, a chynhysgaeth o afreoleidd-dra a gafodd Lee. Pan ddechreuodd ar ei waith mynnodd roddi mewn grym fesurau cryfion i ddifodi pob math ar dorr cyfraith; cafodd hyd yn oed awdurdod i gosbi drwgweithredwyr â chrogi. Ysgrifennai'n wastad at Thomas Cromwell, a rhydd ei lythyrau (sydd yn y Public Record Office, Llundain) ddarluniad pur lawn o'i anawsterau a'r modd y deliai â hwynt. Cafodd y gair o fod yn llym iawn eithr dylid cofio natur y broblem gas a'i hwynebai yn wastad. Credir yn bur gyffredin mai Lee a fu'n gyfrifol am beri i Gymry'r cyfnod newid eu dull o alw eu hunain a mabwysiadu cyfenwau (gw. Ellis, Original Letters, III, iii, 13). Arferid credu mai ar gyngor Lee y trefnodd y brenin Harri VIII i ychwanegu at rif y siroedd a oedd eisoes yng Nghymru; mewn gwirionedd protestiodd Lee yn gryf yn erbyn Deddf 1536 a drefnodd bod Cymru gyfan yn cael ei rhannu'n siroedd ag iddynt ustusiaid heddwch fel yn Lloegr; a phan oeddid yn trefnu, yn Ebrill 1540, i wneuthur arglwyddiaeth Dinbych yn rhan o sir dywedodd ef wrth Cromwell nad ydoedd yn ddoeth gwneuthur hynny. Bu f. yng ‘ngholeg’ S. Chad, Amwythig, 28 Ionawr 1543, a chladdwyd ef yn yr eglwys honno. Am ychwaneg o fanylion gw. David Williams, A History of Modern Wales, 1950; C. A. J. Skeel, The Council in the Marches of Wales, 1904; R. Flenley, A Calendar of the Register of the Queen's Majesty's Council in the Dominion and Principality of Wales and the Marches, 1918.

Awdur

Dyddiad cyhoeddi: 1953-54

Hawlfraint Erthygl: