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Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 118
Function: loadXML

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: DOMDocument::loadXML(): Entity 'CLlGCc' not defined in Entity, line: 12

Filename: controllers/Article.php

Line Number: 118

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 118
Function: loadXML

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Warning

Message: DOMDocument::load(https://yba2-prawf.llgc.org.uk/assets/xml/awduron.xml): failed to open stream: HTTP request failed! HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

Line Number: 129

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 129
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: DOMDocument::load(): I/O warning : failed to load external entity "https://yba2-prawf.llgc.org.uk/assets/xml/awduron.xml"

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

Line Number: 129

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 129
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Notice

Message: Trying to get property of non-object

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

Line Number: 137

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 137
Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Trying to get property of non-object

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

Line Number: 140

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 140
Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Warning

Message: DOMDocument::load(https://yba2-prawf.llgc.org.uk/assets/xml/llyfryddiaeth.xml): failed to open stream: HTTP request failed! HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

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Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 251
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Warning

Message: DOMDocument::load(): I/O warning : failed to load external entity "https://yba2-prawf.llgc.org.uk/assets/xml/llyfryddiaeth.xml"

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

Line Number: 251

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 251
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Notice

Message: Trying to get property of non-object

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

Line Number: 297

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 297
Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Warning

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Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

Line Number: 322

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 322
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Warning

Message: DOMDocument::load(): I/O warning : failed to load external entity "https://yba2-prawf.llgc.org.uk/assets/xml/awduron.xml"

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

Line Number: 322

Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 322
Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

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Severity: Notice

Message: Trying to get property of non-object

Filename: helpers/article_helper.php

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Backtrace:

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
Line: 331
Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 133
Function: transformToXml

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
Line: 77
Function: xsltTransform

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

LEWIS, TIMOTHY RICHARDS (1841 - 1886), llawfeddyg, clefydegydd, ac un o arloeswyr meddygaeth drofannol | Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig

LEWIS, TIMOTHY RICHARDS (1841 - 1886), llawfeddyg, clefydegydd, ac un o arloeswyr meddygaeth drofannol

Enw: Timothy Richards Lewis
Dyddiad geni: 1841
Dyddiad marw: 1886
Priod: Emily Frances Lewis née Brown
Rhiant: Britania Lewis née Richards
Rhiant: William Lewis
Rhyw: Gwryw
Galwedigaeth: llawfeddyg, clefydegydd, ac un o arloeswyr meddygaeth drofannol
Maes gweithgaredd: Meddygaeth
Awdur: Evan David Jones

g. yn yr Hafod, plwyf Llangan, sir Gaerfyrddin, 31 Hydref 1841, yn blentyn hynaf William Lewis a Britania (Richards) ei wraig. Ym mhlwyf Crinow, sir Benfro, y magwyd ef, a chafodd ei addysg fore yn Ysgol Genedlaethol Arberth ac yn ysgol ramadeg Joseph a William Edward Morris yn yr un dref. Prentisiwyd ef yn 15 oed gyda fferyllydd yn Arberth, ond wedi pedair blynedd aeth i Lundain at fferyllydd yn Streatham. Oddi yno, ymunodd ag adran fferyllol yr ysbyty Ellmynig yn Dalston, lle y cafodd gyfle i ddysgu Almaeneg a dechrau ar astudiaethau meddygol. Mynychodd ddosbarthiadau Coleg y Brifysgol, 1863-6, a dyfarnwyd medal arian Fellowes iddo yn 1866. Graddiodd yn M.B. (gydag anrhydedd) a C.M. yn Aberdeen yn 1867. Y flwyddyn wedyn yr oedd ar ben rhestr efrydwyr Ysgol Feddygol y Fyddin yn Netley wrth ymaelodi ac ymadael. Penodwyd ef yn llawfeddyg cynorthwyol yn y fyddin. Yn 1868 penderfynwyd danfon Lewis ac efrydydd arall i astudio damcaniaethau gwyddonwyr yr Almaen ar achosion colera ac i'w gosod ar brawf yn yr India. Felly yr aeth i'r India yn Ionawr 1869, ar ôl treulio rhai misoedd yn yr Almaen. Am ryw bum mlynedd bu'n astudio problemau ynglŷn â cholera. Yn 1874 gwnaethpwyd ef yn gynorthwywr arbennig i'r Comisiynydd Iechydol, a helaethwyd maes ei ymchwil i gynnwys y gwahanglwyf a chlefydau dwyreiniol eraill. Yn 1870 darganfu Lewis drychfilyn a alwyd ganddo yn ‘Filaria sanguinis hominis,’ a elwir yn awr yn ‘Wuchereria bancrofti.’ Yn 1877, darganfu drychfilyn arall yng ngwaed llygod mawr, ac erys ei enw ar hwn, sef ‘Trypanosoma lewisi.’ Gadawodd yr India yn Ionawr 1883 i gymryd swydd athro cynorthwyol mewn clefydeg yn Netley, ond cadwodd mewn cyswllt agos â Llywodraeth yr India, gan ei chynrychioli mewn cynadleddau cydwladol ar broblemau iechydol. Yn 1884-5 galwyd arno eto i ailafael yn ei ymchwil i achosion colera, ac i astudio damcaniaeth Robert Koch a ddarganfuasai'r ‘comma-bacillus.’ Ef oedd ysgrifennydd y pwyllgor gwyddonwyr a ddewiswyd i gloriannu'r ddamcaniaeth yn 1885. Cafwyd fod pwysau'r dystiolaeth ar y pryd yn erbyn damcaniaeth Koch, ond parhaodd Lewis i astudio'r broblem. Ym mis Ebrill 1886, cymeradwywyd ei enw i gael ei ethol yn F.R.S., ond cyn yr etholiad yr oedd ef wedi syrthio'n ysglyfaeth i un o'r meicrobau y bu'n eu holrhain mor ddiwyd. Bu f. 7 Mai 1886, a chladdwyd ef yn Netley. Erys ei adroddiadau yn glasuron mewn bacterioleg. Cyhoeddwyd cyfrol goffa (In Memoriam) iddo yn 1888. Y mae ei lawysgrifau yn y Llyfrgell Genedlaethol (NLW MS. 14381-14401).

Awdur

Dyddiad cyhoeddi: 1953-54

Hawlfraint Erthygl: