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MANSEL, Syr ROBERT (1573 - 1656), llyngesydd | Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig

MANSEL, Syr ROBERT (1573 - 1656), llyngesydd

Enw: Robert Mansel
Dyddiad geni: 1573
Dyddiad marw: 1656
Priod: Anne Mansel née Roper
Priod: Elizabeth Mansel née Bacon
Rhiant: Jane Mansel née Somerset
Rhiant: Edward Mansel
Brawd neu chwaer: Elizabeth Rice née Mansell
Brawd neu chwaer: Thomas Mansel
Brawd neu chwaer: Francis Mansel
Rhyw: Gwryw
Galwedigaeth: llyngesydd
Maes gweithgaredd: Milwrol
Awduron: William Llewelyn Davies, Aled Eames

Pedwerydd (chweched?) mab Syr Edward Mansel (a fu farw 1595), Penrice, Oxwich, a Margam, trwy ei wraig, Lady Jane Somerset, merch Henry, ail iarll Worcester. Y mae ei yrfa, a ddisgrifir yn y D.N.B., yn cyffwrdd hanes Lloegr yn fwy na hanes Cymru. Eithr y mae'n werth dwyn ar gof fod, yn herwydd priodas ei nai Syr Lewis Mansel, gysylltiad teuluol rhwng tylwyth Syr Robert a theulu Gamage, Coety, sir Forgannwg, ac felly â'r arglwydd Howard, arglwydd lyngesydd, sef y gwr y dywedir i Mansel fynd i'r môr gydag ef ar gychwyn ei yrfa. Bu'n gwasnaethu yn yr ymgyrch ar Cadiz, cafodd ei urddo'n farchog yn 1596, a threuliodd flynyddoedd lawer yn y llynges; gwnaethpwyd ef yn drysorydd iddi yn 1604. Fe'i taflwyd i garchar y Marshalsea yn 1613 oherwydd achwyn rhagddo ei fod yn euog o ryw anniddigrwydd gwleidyddol; yn 1618, fodd bynnag, cafodd ei wneuthur yn is-lyngesydd Lloegr ac yn 1620-1 yr oedd yn gwneuthur cyrchoedd ar Algiers.

Ymdrinir â gwaith Mansel fel Trysorydd y Llynges, ei gyswllt â Syr John Trevor a Syr Thomas Button a hefyd â Phineas Pett y saer llongau, yn rhai o gyhoeddiadau'r ‘Navy Records Society’ — (i) Two Discourses of the Navy — The Navy Ript and Ransact gan John Hollond, 1659, a A Discourse on the Navy, gan Syr Robert Slyngesbie, gol. Tanner, 1896; (ii) The Autobiography of Phineas Pett, gol. Perrin, 1918; (iii) The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, gol. Oppenheim, pum cyfrol, 1902-14.

Sylwer bod y dogfennau cyfoes hyn yn rhoi lle i gredu nad ‘dyrchafiad’ gwirioneddol oedd penodiad Mansel (1618) yn islyngesydd — yn hytrach, fe'i symudwyd yn fwriadol i swydd lai dylanwadol, yn herwydd ei anonestrwydd yn 1604-18. Ymddengys nad heb sail y cyhuddwyd ef; eto, cadwodd ffafr y brenin ar waethaf methiant truenus ei gyrch ar Algiers yn 1621.

Bu'n aelod seneddol droeon — dros King's Lynn 1601, Caerfyrddin 1603, sir Gaerfyrddin 1614, sir Forgannwg 1623 a 1625, Lostwithiel 1626, a sir Forgannwg drachefn 1627-8.

O'r flwyddyn 1618 bu Syr Robert yn ymddiddori mewn gwneuthur gwydr a llestri gwydr; cawsai gyfran o'r monopoli yn y gwaith hwnnw y flwyddyn honno. Cyfeirir yn fyr at hyn yn y D.N.B., eithr ceir manylion llawnach gan C. A. Maunsell ac E. P. Statham yn Hist. of the Family of Maunsell (Mansell, Mansel), i, pen. xii. Pan fu Tyr Cyffredin yn ystyried Mesur y Monopolïau yn 1624 gwnaeth Syr Robert ddatganiad y gellir casglu oddi wrtho iddo geisio sefydlu ffatrïoedd mewn gwahanol leoedd — Llundain, Ynys Purbeck, Aberdaugleddau, dyffryn Trent. Dywed John Brand (Hist. of Newcastle): ‘We may venture to fix the beginning of the glass-works upon the Tyne about A.D. 1619, where they were established by Sir Robert Mansell. … The cheapness of sea-coal was no doubt his chief inducement for erecting them at so great a distance from London.’

Y mae'r cyfeiriad at ‘sea-coal’ yn bwysig. Gan fod Syr Robert yn defnyddio ‘sea-coal’ yn lle coed (fel tanwydd) yr oedd ei fonopoli i raddau helaeth yn rhoddi iddo hawl wirioneddol i'w batent; serch hynny yr oedd yn wastad yn gorfod amddiffyn ei batent rhag y rhai a geisiai ei gamddefnyddio a rhag y rheini a oedd yn gwrthwynebu monopolïau fel y cyfryw; am fanylion gw. Maunsell a Statham, op. cit.; yn yr un gwaith ceir copi ffacsimile o wyneb-ddalen ac adargraffiad o gynnwys llyfr gan y llyngesydd, sef A Trve Report of the Service done vpon Certaine Gallies passing through the Narrow Seas; Written to the Lord high Admirall of England, by Sir Robert Mansell Knight, Admirall of her Maiesties forces in that place (London, 1602).

Bu Syr Robert f. yn 1656 — gweinyddwyd ei ewyllys ar 20 Mehefin y flwyddyn honno gan ei weddw. Bu'n briod ddwywaith: (1) cyn 1600, ag Elizabeth, ferch Syr Nicholas Bacon, arglwydd geidwad y sêl fawr; a (2), 1617, ag Anne, ferch Syr John Roper. Ni adawodd blant.

Awduron

Dyddiad cyhoeddi: 1953-54

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