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SALESBURY, WILLIAM (1520? - 1584?), ysgolhaig a phrif gyfieithydd y Testament Newydd Cymraeg cyntaf | Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig

SALESBURY, WILLIAM (1520? - 1584?), ysgolhaig a phrif gyfieithydd y Testament Newydd Cymraeg cyntaf

Enw: William Salesbury
Dyddiad geni: 1520?
Dyddiad marw: 1584?
Priod: Catrin Salesbury née Llwyd
Rhiant: Annes wraig Ffwg ap Robert ap Tomas Salbri Hen
Rhiant: Ffwg ap Robert ap Tomas Salbri Hen
Rhyw: Gwryw
Galwedigaeth: ysgolhaig a phrif gyfieithydd y Testament Newydd Cymraeg cyntaf
Maes gweithgaredd: Crefydd; Llenyddiaeth ac Ysgrifennu; Ysgolheictod ac Ieithoedd
Awduron: William Alun Mathias, Robert Thomas Jenkins

Uchelwr o waed ydoedd, yn ail fab i Ffwg ap Robert ap Tomas Salbri Hen, ac Annes, ferch Wiliam ap Gruffydd ap Robin o Gochwillan. Ganed ef yn Llansannan, ond treuliodd y rhan fwyaf o'i oes yn y Plas Isa, Llanrwst. Addysgwyd ef yn Rhydychen, a thebyg mai yno y cefnodd ar Eglwys Rufain a throi'n Brotestant. Priododd Catrin Llwyd, chwaer y Dr. Elis Prys, Plas Iolyn. Er i Syr John Wynn o Wedir ac eraill awgrymu iddo fyw hyd tua diwedd y ganrif, y mae'n lled sicr mai tua 1584 neu ychydig cyn hynny y bu farw.

Yr oedd dau brif gymhelliad y tu ôl i weithgarwch William Salesbury : awydd i roi'r Ysgrythur Lân o fewn cyrraedd y Cymry, ac awydd i gyflwyno dysg a gwybodaeth iddynt yn eu hiaith eu hunain. Ei gynnig cyntaf ar drosi'r Ysgrythurau i'r Gymraeg oedd y cyfieithiad o lithoedd gwasanaeth Cymun yr Eglwys a argraffodd yn 1551 dan y teitl Kynniver llith a ban. Dryswyd ei gynlluniau dros dro pan adferwyd y grefydd Gatholig Rufeinig dan y frenhines Mari (1553-8), ond yn gynnar yn nheyrnasiad Elisabeth, yn y flwyddyn 1563, pasiwyd deddf yn gorchymyn cyfieithu'r Beibl a'r Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin i'r Gymraeg, a gwahoddwyd ef i gynorthwyo Richard Davies, esgob Tyddewi, gyda'r cyfieithu. Gorffennwyd y Llyfr Gweddi a'r Testament Newydd erbyn 1567 a chyhoeddwyd y ddau destun y flwyddyn honno. Salesbury a wnaethai'r rhan fwyaf o'r gwaith: efe, hyd y gellir barnu, a gyfieithodd y Llyfr Gweddi, ac ef hefyd a gyfieithodd holl lyfrau'r Testament Newydd ar wahân i Lyfr y Datguddiad a gyfieithwyd gan Thomas Huet, cantor Tyddewi, a'r epistolau canlynol a gyfieithwyd gan Richard Davies — 1 Timotheus, Hebreaid, Iago, 1 a 2 Pedr. Y mae'n debyg i Salesbury a'r esgob Davies ddechrau cyfieithu 'r Hen Destament i'r Gymraeg, ond am ryw reswm — yn ôl Syr John Wynn am iddynt anghytuno ar ystyr a tharddiad rhyw air — ni ddaeth y gwaith i ben, ac ni chafwyd yr Hen Destament yn Gymraeg hyd nes cyhoeddodd y Dr. William Morgan ei gyfieithiad o'r Beibl yn 1588. Bu beirniadu llym ar gyfieithiadau Salesbury, ac ni chawsant nemor ddim croeso, am eu bod yn dryfrith o ffurfiau Lladinaidd a hynodion orgraffyddol eraill, ac, o'r herwydd, yn annealladwy i liaws mawr o'i gyfoeswyr. Er hynny, gwych o gyfieithiadau oeddynt o ran iaith ac arddull, a mawr oedd dyled y Dr. Morgan iddynt.

Ni chyfyngodd Salesbury ei weithgarwch i gyfieithu'r Ysgrythurau. Yn 1547 argraffodd eiriadur i ddysgu Saesneg i'r Cymry; hwn o bosibl ydoedd y llyfr argraffedig cyntaf yn Gymraeg. Tair blynedd yn ddiweddarach cyhoeddodd lyfr i gynorthwyo Saeson i ddysgu Cymraeg. Un o'i lyfrau mwyaf adnabyddus ydyw Oll Synnwyr pen Kembero ygyd, casgliad o ddiarhebion Cymraeg a argraffodd tua 1547 er ceisio dwyn ei gydwladwyr i ymgydnabod â pheth o ddysg draddodiadol eu cenedl. Trosodd rai testunau o ieithoedd eraill yn Gymraeg. Er enghraifft, yn 1552 cyfieithodd draethawd ar retoreg o'r Lladin yn Gymraeg. Ond ni chyhoeddodd y gwaith hwn nac ychwaith y llysieulyfr a gyfieithodd o destunau Lladin a Saesneg rhwng 1568 a 1574. Yn ychwanegol at y gweithiau a enwyd, argraffodd Salesbury nifer o lyfrau ar amrywiol destunau yn Gymraeg a Saesneg. [Argraffwyd y Llysieulyfr yn 1916.]

Ymddangosodd ail argraffiadau o rai o weithiau Salesbury yn y cyfnod diweddar: (a) adargraffiad ffacsimile o'r Dictionary in Englyshe and Welshe, 1547, a gyhoeddwyd gan Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion (d.d., 1877?), gw. ysgrif Robert Jones o Rotherhithe yn Cymm., i, 107-25, a nodyn J. H. Davies yn Cymm., xiv, 96-7; (b) adargraffiad o Oll Synnwyr Pen, gan Urdd Graddedigion y Brifysgol (Bangor, 1902, gol. J. Gwenogvryn Evans); (c) adargraffiad o Kynniver Llith a Ban (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1931, gol. John Fisher); (ch) ail argraffiad o'r Testament Newydd (Robert Griffith, Caernarfon, 1850). Ar Gymraeg Salesbury, gw. W. J. Gruffydd, Llenyddiaeth Cymru, 1540-1660, 31-66 (a ddelia hefyd â materion eraill ynglyn ag ef), ac Ifor Williams yn Y Traethodydd, 1946, 32-45. Ar fater y testun Groeg o'r T.N. a ddefnyddiodd Salesbury, gw. Thomas Charles Edwards yn Liverpool Welsh Nat. Soc. Trans., 1885-6, 51-81. Bu dull ‘ffonetaidd’ Salesbury o sillafu geiriau Saesneg (modd y gallai'r Cymro ddysgu eu cynanu'n gywir) yn gryn help i ymchwil i'r modd y cynenid yr iaith Saesneg yn y 16eg g. — gw. e.e. A. J. Ellis, Early English Pronunciation, 744-88.

William Salesbury oedd Cymro mwyaf dysgedig ei oes: medrai Hebraeg, Roeg, a Lladin yn ogystal â rhai ieithoedd diweddar, ac yr oedd yn hyddysg mewn llu o wahanol bynciau. Ond ysgolhaig a llenor Cymraeg ydoedd yn anad dim, ac ef ydyw un o brif gynrychiolwyr dyneiddiaeth y Dadeni Dysg yng Nghymru. Prin y cyflawnodd neb fwy o wasanaeth i genedl y Cymry na William Salesbury. Ei gyfraniad mawr oedd cyfieithu'r Ysgrythurau yn Gymraeg a thrwyddynt osod sylfeini rhyddiaith Gymraeg ddiweddar.

Awduron

Dyddiad cyhoeddi: 1953-54

Hawlfraint Erthygl: