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Function: loadXML

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Function: loadXML

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
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Function: load

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Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/helpers/article_helper.php
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Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: load

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Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: load

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Function: load

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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Function: _error_handler

File: /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/yba2/application/controllers/Article.php
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JOHANNES WALLENSIS (Gallensis, Waleys, ‘John of Wales,’ etc.) (fl. c. 1260-83 — efallai iddo f. c. 1285), awdur ac aelod enwog o Urdd S. Ffransis | Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig

JOHANNES WALLENSIS (Gallensis, Waleys, ‘John of Wales,’ etc.) (fl. c. 1260-83 — efallai iddo f. c. 1285), awdur ac aelod enwog o Urdd S. Ffransis

Enw: Johannes Wallensis
Dyddiad marw: c. 1285
Rhyw: Gwryw
Galwedigaeth: awdur ac aelod enwog o Urdd S. Ffransis
Maes gweithgaredd: Crefydd; Llenyddiaeth ac Ysgrifennu
Awdur: William Hopkin Davies

yn perthyn i dalaith (‘custody’) Worcester. Nid oes dim yn wybyddus am ei fywyd cynnar, eithr rywbryd cyn 1260 yr oedd yn chweched ‘regent-master’ y Fratres Minores yn Rhydychen lle yr oedd eisoes wedi cymryd ei B.D.; yn ddiweddarach yr oedd yn ddarlithydd ac yn ddoethur mewn diwinyddiaeth (D.D.) ym Mharis lle yr oedd, fe ymddengys, yn ‘regent’ yng nghanolfan y Ffransisiaid yn 1282. Ym mis Hydref yr un flwyddyn defnyddiwyd ef gan yr archesgob Peckham, Caergaint, fel cyfryngwr rhwng y brenin Edward I a Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, y tywysog Cymreig ‘gwrthryfelgar.’ Y cyfeiriad diwethaf ato ydyw hwnnw sydd yn mynegi ei fod yn un o bum doethur a ddewiswyd i archwilio athrawiaethau Peter John Olivi (Pietro di Giovanni Olivi) yn 1283. Wedi ei f. ym Mharis, lle hefyd y claddwyd ef, anrhydeddwyd ef â'r teitl ‘Arbor Vitae’ (’ Pren y Bywyd’).

Ysgrifennodd Iohannes Gallensis lawer o lyfrau, er nad ei eiddo ef ydyw'r cwbl a dadogir arno. Ymysg ei ysgrifeniadau pwysicaf y mae: (a) ‘Breviloquium de sapientia sanctorum,’ ymdrafodaeth fer ar ddoethineb Gristionogol, a ddilynir yn rhai o'n testynau printiedig gan ‘Breviloquium de virtutibus antiquorum principum et philosophorum,’ testyn sydd yn defnyddio cofiannau gwyr mawr yr hen fyd i ddangos y pedair prif rhinwedd; (b) ‘Summa collationum ad omne genus hominum,’ neu ‘Communiloquium,’ traethawd maith yn saith o rannau ac yn llawn o hyfforddiadau i'r pregethwr sut i annerch pob math ar ddynion; (c) ‘Compendiloquium de vitis illustrium philosophorum et de dictis moralibus eorundem,’ traethawd mewn deg o rannau, wedi ei amcanu i roddi esiamplau calonogol i Gristionogion allan o fywydau a dywediadau hen athronwyr. Ymysg gweithiau eraill y mae ‘Summa de Paenitentia,’ ‘Summa Iustitiae,’ ‘Moniloquium’ (ar bechodau a rhinweddau a'u gwobrwyon), ‘Legiloquium’ (ar y Deg Gorchymyn), rhai pregethau, ac, efallai, rai esboniadau. Dywedir hefyd iddo gychwyn y ‘Manipulus Florum’ neu ‘Flores Doctorum’ poblogaidd a gwplawyd gan Thomas of Ireland. Cynulliadau ydyw’r llawlyfrau hyn gan mwyaf. Nid ydynt yn arddangos dyfnder na gwreiddioldeb meddwl nac unrhyw ddiddordeb mewn metaffyseg, mathemateg, na gwyddoniaeth naturiol; eithr y maent yn profi i'r awdur ddarllen yn helaeth ac yn dangos inni gymaint o bwysigrwydd a roddid ganddo ar athrawiaethu mewn modd ymarferol. Y mae'n dyfynnu o gylch eang o awduron Lladin — o'r cyfnod clasurol, o oes y tadau eglwysig, a'r Canol Oesoedd — gan gynnwys cyfieithiadau Lladin o weithiau'r athronwyr Arabaidd Averroes ac Avicenna, ac eraill; eithr mewn cyfieithiadau yn unig y gwyddai am waith awduron Groegaidd. Yr awdur ‘modern’ a hoffai fwyaf oedd John o Salisbury. Gydag ychydig iawn o eithriadau y mae Johannes Gallensis yn ei ddifodi ei hun yn gyfan gwbl, a chan na feddai ar safbwynt beirniadol tuag at yr hyn y mae yn ei ysgrifennu y mae yn aml yn euog o amryw wrthddywediadau a ffolinebau. Prin hefyd ydyw ei gyfeiriadau at y byd a oedd yn gyfoes ag ef. Bu ei weithiau yn boblogaidd, a hynny trwy haeddiant, am lawer canrif, ar gyfrif y cyflawnder o ‘exempla’ (esiamplau) a oedd ynddynt, eu moesoldeb ymarferol diffuant, a'r ysbryd goddefgar a ddangosid ynddynt.

Awdur

Dyddiad cyhoeddi: 1953-54

Hawlfraint Erthygl: