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RUSBRIDGE, ROSALIND (1915-2004), athrawes ac ymgyrchydd heddwch | Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig

RUSBRIDGE, ROSALIND (1915-2004), athrawes ac ymgyrchydd heddwch

Enw: Rosalind Rusbridge
Dyddiad geni: 1915
Dyddiad marw: 2004
Priod: Ewart Rusbridge
Plentyn: Stella Faith Ellis née Rusbridge
Plentyn: Paul Ingli Rusbridge
Rhiant: Emily Sarah Bevan née Hemming
Rhiant: Sidney Bevan
Rhyw: Benyw
Galwedigaeth: athrawes ac ymgyrchydd heddwch
Maes gweithgaredd: Addysg; Gwleidyddiaeth a Mudiadau Gwleidyddol; Crefydd
Awdur: Jean Silvan Evans

Ganwyd Rosalind ar 19 Ebrill 1915, yn ferch i Sidney Bevan DCM (1878-1935) ac Emily Sarah Bevan (g. Hemming, 1878-1974), y ddau'n athrawon yn Abertawe. Roedd ganddi frawd iau, Sidney Hemming Bevan (g. 1921). Honnai Rosalind ei bod yn sosialydd ac yn heddychwraig Gristnogol cyn iddi adael yr ysgol. Enillodd ei thad y DCM am achub milwyr clwyfedig mewn brwydr yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf ond daeth adre'n wrthwynebus i ryfel. Dioddefodd yn wael o wenwyn nwy, a bu farw o'r effeithiau yn ei bumdegau. Roedd ei farwolaeth gynnar yn achos gofid a dicter mawr i'w wraig, a daeth hithau'n heddychwraig o'r herwydd. Un a gafodd ddylanwad mwy agored ar Rosalind yn ystod ei harddegau oedd y Parch. Howard Ingli James, heddychwr carismataidd a fu'n weinidog dadleuol ar Eglwys Bedyddwyr Pantygwydr (1923-31), ac a ddaeth wedyn yn gadeirydd ar Gymdeithas Heddychol Bedyddwyr Prydain. Bu Rosalind a'i brawd yn wrthwynebwyr cydwybodol yn ystod yr Ail Ryfel Byd.

Cafodd Rosalind ei haddysg yn Ysgol Uwchradd y Merched Abertawe ac enillodd ysgoloriaeth y wladwriaeth i Brifysgol Caergrawnt, lle y graddiodd gyda dosbarth cyntaf yn y clasuron yn 1938, ac aeth ymlaen i ennill DipEd gyda rhagoriaeth ym Mhrifysgol Rhydychen. Priododd Ewart Rusbridge (1917-1969), gŵr gradd o Rydychen gyda dosbarth cyntaf dwbl mewn cerddoriaeth a chlasuron, yn 1942. Roedd y ddau'n Fedyddwyr selog a bu iddynt gwrdd trwy gyfarfodydd y Bedyddwyr yn y brifysgol. Roedd Ewart yntau'n heddychwr yn ystod y rhyfel. Bu iddynt fabwysiadu dau blentyn, Paul Ingli Rusbridge (g. 1952) a Stella Faith Ellis (g. 1955).

Dychwelodd Rosalind i Abertawe i gymryd swydd fel athrawes glasuron yn Ysgol Merched Glanmor ym Medi 1939. Yng nghanol y mudiad heddwch, daeth yn ysgrifennydd i Heddychwyr Unedig Abertawe, gan werthu Peace News ar y strydoedd a'r traeth, a hi oedd deiliad swyddogol Stondin Heddwch y grŵp ar ddyddiau Sadwrn ym Marchnad Abertawe. Roedd yn un o'r menywod cyntaf i ymuno â'r Peace Pledge Union (PPU) pan agorodd i fenywod. Yn adnabyddus fel areithwraig angerddol, rhannodd lwyfan cenedlaethol gyda'r heddychwyr nodedig Sybil Thorndike a Vera Brittain a chymerodd ran mewn dirprwyaeth i Balas Buckingham.

Erbyn 1940, wrth i bethau ddechrau mynd o chwith i'r Cynghreiriaid yn y rhyfel, roedd Abertawe'n un o'r ardaloedd lle disodlwyd agwedd oddefgar tuag at heddychwyr gan wrthwynebiad chwyrn, ac yn sgil ymgyrchu yno sefydlwyd Cynghrair Teyrngarwyr Abertawe, mudiad a gydweithiodd â'r Lleng Brydeinig i erlid yr heddychwyr. Gofynnwyd i Rosalind gau'r Stondin Heddwch ar y Farchnad a dywedwyd wrthi fod rhai'n bygwth ‘tro cas’. Gwrthododd, a'r Sadwrn nesaf cafodd fod y stondin dan glo ar orchymyn y cyngor.

Ym mis Mehefin bu dadl yng Nghyngor Bwrdeistref Abertawe ar gynnig yn galw am ddiswyddo gweithwyr y cyngor a oedd yn wrthwynebwyr cydwybodol neu'n aelodau o'r PPU. Gadawyd y cynnig ar y bwrdd y tro hwnnw, ond bu ymgyrch yn y wasg wedyn i ennyn casineb tuag at heddychwyr. Mewn cyfarfod arbennig ar 28 Mehefin caniataodd y Blaid Lafur bleidlais rydd ar y mater, a gyda mwyafrif o 33-12 cytunwyd i ddiswyddo heddychwyr cyflogedig gan y cyngor tan ddiwedd y rhyfel ac at hynny i fynnu bod holl weithwyr y cyngor yn arwyddo datganiad teyrngarwch a chefnogaeth i'r rhyfel.

Roedd Rosalind yn un o'r rhai a wrthododd arwyddo ac fe gollodd ei swydd. Daeth adwaith yn fuan. Cafwyd protestiadau gan undebau athrawon a'r Cyngor Cenedlaethol dros Hawliau Sifil, ond daeth y trobwynt ym mis Hydref gyda memorandwm gan yr Ysgrifennydd Cartref yn nodi na ddylai neb gael ei gosbi am fod â barn. Mewn cyfarfod chwerw ym mis Hydref, a chwip Llafur eto mewn grym, pleidleisiodd y cyngor o fwyafrif bychan i adfer swyddi y gweithwyr a ddiswyddwyd. Ond erbyn hynny roedd Rosalind yn dysgu yn Ysgol Ramadeg y Bechgyn yng Nghaer, a gwrthododd y cynnig i ddychwelyd i Abertawe. Dywedodd ei bod yn teimlo bod teyrngarwch yn ddyledus i'r awdurdod a'i derbyniasai yn hytrach nag i'w thref enedigol a'i taflodd allan.

Ni ddychwelodd fyth i ddysgu yn Abertawe. Cafodd ei chroesawu yng Nghaer a gwnaeth ffrindiau am oes yno. Priododd Rosalind ac Ewart yng Nghaer yn 1942 ond arhosodd y ddau yn eu swyddi tan ar ôl y rhyfel pan ymunodd Rosalind â'i gŵr yn Ysgol Mill Hill lle roedd yn gyfarwyddwr cerdd. Symudasant i Fryste yn 1948 pan benodwyd Ewart i staff Ysgol Ramadeg Bryste, ac yno y bu cartref y teulu wedyn.

Gweithiodd Rosalind fel athrawes ran-amser am y rhan fwyaf o'i gyrfa, yn bennaf yn Ysgol y Merched Clifton, ac roedd bron yn ddeg a thrugain oed yn ymddeol. Arddelodd ei daliadau sosialaidd a'i heddychaeth Gristnogol ar hyd ei hoes, gan ymgyrchu'n ddi-baid dros hawliau dynol. Cynhaliwyd cyfarfodydd y Blaid Lafur yn ei chartref, a safodd unwaith mewn etholiad yn erbyn yr AS Ceidwadol hir-sefydlog. Roedd yn weithgar iawn yn Eglwys y Bedyddwyr Horfield, a dywedid mai hi oedd ‘cydwybod yr eglwys’, yn mynnu cefnogaeth i ryw achos o hyd er mwyn dangos bod rhaid byw'r ffydd Gristnogol y tu allan i furiau'r eglwys. Cynrychiolodd y de-orllewin ar gorff cenedlaethol yr Ymgyrch Gristnogol dros Ddiarfogi Niwclear (CCND), gan orymdeithio'n rheolaidd i brotestio yn erbyn y gwersylloedd Americanaidd yn Aldermaston a Chomin Greenham.

Er nad oedd ond cyfnod o ychydig fisoedd yn ei bywyd hir, cofir Rosalind yn bennaf am ei rhan yn helynt heddychwyr Abertawe. Collodd 19 o weithwyr y cyngor eu swyddi, 10 ohonynt yn fenywod, ond atgofion Rosalind a grynhodd yr hanes yn fwyaf cofiadwy, yn gyntaf mewn ffilm a wnaed gan Grŵp Hanes Menywod Abertawe yn 1988, ac wedyn yn ei chyfraniad i'r gyfrol am brofiadau menywod yn y rhyfel, Parachutes and Petticoats a gyhoeddwyd yn 1992.

Bu farw Rosalind Rusbridge o gancr ar 9 Gorffennaf 2004 yn 89 oed ac amlosgwyd ei chorff ar ôl gwasanaeth yn Eglwys y Bedyddwyr Horfield, Bryste.

Awdur

Dyddiad cyhoeddi: 2017

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